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Fig 2. Mitochondrial DNA integrity and expression of mtDNA-encoded genes in chagasic mice (± PARP1).

Mice (WT and PARP1-/-) were infected with T. cruzi and sacrificed at 150 days’ pi. (A) Representative gel images (n = 3 mice/group) show myocardial levels of 10 kb mtDNA with short 177-bp mtDNA and 96-bp GAPDH (nuDNA) fragments as controls. The PCR amplification was conducted for 28 cycles. (B) Densitometry analysis was performed on PCR gels representing n? 6 mice/group, and density of the 10 kb mtDNA band was normalized against mtDNA (B.a) and nuDNA (B.b) fragments. (C-G) Myocardial mRNA levels for mtDNA-encoded genes were determined by RT-qPCR, and normalized to GAPDH mRNA (n ? 5, triplicate observations per mouse). (H-K) Representative Western blotting images (n = 3 mice per group) of cardiac mitochondrial levels of COI and AMPK-like (COIV, loading control) and total heart homogenate levels of AMPK (GAPDH, loading control) are shown (H). Densitometry analysis was performed on gel images for n = 6 mice for each protein, and data for COI and AMPK-like levels in mitochondrial fractions (I&J) and AMPK levels in total heart homogenates (K) were normalized to COIV and GAPDH, respectively. In bar graphs, data are plotted as mean value ± SEM. Statistical significance are marked as *WT.Tc vs. WT, &PARP1-/-.Tc vs. PARP1-/-, and # WT.Tc vs. PARP1-/-.Tc (*,#p<0.05, ***,&&&,###p<0.001).

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007065.g002

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    Juul’s team tried it in a group of 20 patients. Nine got poop transplants at the first sign of C. diff-related diarrhea, and 11 got the antibiotic metronidazole.

    Five out of nine who got the fecal transplant were cured by a single transplant delivered by enema, and five of the 11 who got antibiotics were cured, the team reported. Their findings are being presented and discussed at a meeting of gastroenterologists called Digestive Disease Week.

    Four days after the fecal transplant, three of the patients who still had diarrhea got antibiotics and two of them were cured. But giving more antibiotics to the six patients who got drugs to start with did not help them recover, the researchers said.