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That’s important. Bacteria exposed to air develop differently from bacteria that have not been exposed to outside air. The inside of the colon is pretty much air-free.

The stool has also been kept frozen, which means it has no exposure to any antibiotic resistance that may have developed and spread in bacteria since 1994. A company called Achim Biotherapeutics makes the fecal transplant product used for the study.

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    Hopping was born in 1921 in Vietnam, where his father had lumber interests. He developed his connection with the ocean while growing up on Pacific islands before coming to the United States for military school and then the Army. He served in World War II as a medical evacuation pilot in various Pacific theaters. He also served aboard a minesweeper during the Korean War.