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Fig 2. Mitochondrial DNA integrity and expression of mtDNA-encoded genes in chagasic mice (± PARP1).

Mice (WT and PARP1-/-) were infected with T. cruzi and sacrificed at 150 days’ pi. (A) Representative gel images (n = 3 mice/group) show myocardial levels of 10 kb mtDNA with short 177-bp mtDNA and 96-bp GAPDH (nuDNA) fragments as controls. The PCR amplification was conducted for 28 cycles. (B) Densitometry analysis was performed on PCR gels representing n? 6 mice/group, and density of the 10 kb mtDNA band was normalized against mtDNA (B.a) and nuDNA (B.b) fragments. (C-G) Myocardial mRNA levels for mtDNA-encoded genes were determined by RT-qPCR, and normalized to GAPDH mRNA (n ? 5, triplicate observations per mouse). (H-K) Representative Western blotting images (n = 3 mice per group) of cardiac mitochondrial levels of COI and AMPK-like (COIV, loading control) and total heart homogenate levels of AMPK (GAPDH, loading control) are shown (H). Densitometry analysis was performed on gel images for n = 6 mice for each protein, and data for COI and AMPK-like levels in mitochondrial fractions (I&J) and AMPK levels in total heart homogenates (K) were normalized to COIV and GAPDH, respectively. In bar graphs, data are plotted as mean value ± SEM. Statistical significance are marked as *WT.Tc vs. WT, &PARP1-/-.Tc vs. PARP1-/-, and # WT.Tc vs. PARP1-/-.Tc (*,#p<0.05, ***,&&&,###p<0.001).


Electronic Health Records
Anna’s diastasis sadly worsened when she gave birth to her second child, Mattie

Now, with the help of further physio – which she has once every six weeks – Anna is improving.

And, while she says there is no quick fix for what her body has been through, she can run again in short stints without leaking or feeling heaviness.

Now, she is speaking out to help teach other women about post-natal health, and encourage them to give their bodies a chance to heal.

“It’s been a long road, but I’m slowly coming out the other side,” she said.

“Every mum will have their own pregnancy journey, but it’s all about doing what’s best for you.

“There’s a lot of pressure to get back out there, but many of these mother-and-baby fitness classes encourage exercises that are completely inappropriate.

"With me, the symptoms were always there, but the classes I did certainly didn’t help.

“You only get one body, and after something as major as giving birth, you’ve got to be kind to it.”


Lyme -- The First Epidemic of Climate Change author

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