ROS can signal fibrosis, and chronic hypertrophy is a key cause for LV dysfunction. We, therefore, examined if control of PARP1-dependent mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress arrested cardiac remodeling and LV dysfunction in Chagas disease. Echocardiography imaging showed the LV mass and inter-ventricular septum thickness (IVS) were increased by 29–58%, while LV posterior wall (LVPW) was thinned by 31–47% in chagasic (vs. control) WT mice (Fig 6A–6E, all, p<0.05, S2 Table). Histological evaluation of tissue sections by Masson's Trichrome staining showed the myocardial collagen content was significantly increased in chagasic myocardium (score: 4.0 ± 0.4 vs. 0.3 ± 0.04, WT.Tc vs. WT, Fig 6F–6H, p<0.001). An increase in cardiac fibrosis in WT.Tc (vs. control) mice was also evidenced by 6-fold, 8-fold, and 1.5-fold increase in mRNA levels for COL1A1, COL3A1, and COL5A2, respectively (Fig 6I–6K, all, p<0.05). The chronically infected PARP1+/- and PARP1-/- mice exhibited the ability to maintain IVS and LVPW thickness at normal levels, >50% decline in collagen deposition, and 50–90% decline in the mRNA levels of collagen isoforms when compared to that noted in WT.Tc mice (Fig 6A–6K, all, p<0.05)..
People are marching in the streets demanding better care for older Australians in aged care homes after increasing media reports of neglect, abuse and negligence.
If we want to improve the situation for residents, we need more registered nurses in aged care homes. When registered nurses are on duty, residents have better health outcomes, a higher quality of life and fewer hospital admissions.
When I worked as a critical care nurse in hospitals, there was a one-to-one ratio of registered nurses to patients. Some days were busy, others were not. However, because society values "saving lives", legislation ensures every intensive care unit is well staffed.
There are also mandated ratios in childcare centres because society values the safety and welfare of children. Yet we don't take the same approach when it comes to aged care homes.
Is this because we don't value older people?
The 2011 Productivity Commission Report Caring for Older Australians described staffing ratios as "a fairly blunt instrument for ensuring quality care because of the heterogeneous and ever-changing care needs of aged care recipients.".